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Unit-5 Social Welfare Policies | DSC-10 BA Hons Semester 4

Social Welfare Administration

  • Definition: A field applying scientific processes to promote social work practices within administration, focusing on social services, dignity, human relationships, and individual worth.

  • Purpose: Translates social policies, programs, and legislation into practice to address social issues.




 

Understanding Social Welfare

  • Definition: Encompasses the shared problems and solutions of a large group of people, including social interventions aimed at enhancing social functioning (e.g., social services and programs).



Antiquity of Social Welfare

  • Evolution: From benevolent works to organized activities, social reform movements, and public services aimed at benefiting and protecting individuals and families.


Social Welfare Administration

  • Function: Involves policies and processes of social institutions to efficiently deliver services to the community.

  • Requirements: Administrative, financial, and legal regulations for effective service delivery.



Objectives of Social Welfare Administration

  1. Protection and Law & Order: Maintain national security and civil order.

  2. Economic Development: Develop work capabilities, increase industrial productivity.

  3. Civil Security: Provide solutions for emergencies and reduce criminal activities.



Contribution to Economic Development

  • Enhancement: Improves work capabilities, industrial productivity, and relations among industrialists, managers, and workers.

  • Support: Provides education, technology, housing, and health services.

  • Stabilization: Ensures progressive living standards, prevents income wastage, and provides welfare services.


Social Development

  • Provisions: Nutrition, health, education, training, and employment for maximum manpower development.

  • Programs: Welfare initiatives for women, children, youth, elderly, laborers, poor, socially disabled, handicapped, and diseased individuals.



Social Institutions

  • Types: Government institutions and voluntary institutions funded by the community.

  • Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB): Established in 1953 to develop technical, organizational, administrative, and financial aspects of voluntary organizations.



Concept of Social Welfare

  • Definition: "A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being."

  • Shift: From laissez-faire to the welfare state, emphasizing a minimum standard of economic and social security for all citizens.


Responsibilities of the Welfare State

  • Fundamental Needs: Ensure food, shelter, and security.

  • Core Policy: Help individuals in adverse circumstances.


Welfare in Sociological Context

  • Institution: Assists individuals and groups in achieving satisfactory standards of life and health.



Social Welfare vs. Individual Welfare

  • Difference: Social welfare is not just the sum of individual welfare but also considers contradictory interests.


Jeremy Bentham's Perspective

  • Community: Viewed as a fictitious body of individuals, with community interest as the sum of the interests of its members.


Social Welfare Definitions

  • Provision: Systematized provision of resources and services to solve social problems.

  • Intervention: Aimed at boosting or continuing social works in society.



Approaches to Social Welfare

  1. Correctional: Legal and administrative reforms (e.g., labor laws).

  2. Protective: Social security programs against risks like accidents, sickness, unemployment.

  3. Democratic: Shared responsibility between state and individuals.

  4. Community: Community efforts to develop social welfare programs.

  5. Self-help: Encourages cooperative efforts for social welfare.


Residual and Institutional Models

  • Residual Model: Welfare as a last resort, cost-effective but limited.

  • Institutional Model: Universal welfare, comprehensive but expensive, and criticized by limited government supporters.


Comparison of Models

  1. Residual Welfare Model

  • Focus: Aid to the needy, short-term services, requires proof of need, stigmatizing.

  1. Institutional Welfare Model

  • Focus: Universal aid, preventive services, right-based, non-discriminatory, aims to maintain living standards for all.



Social Welfare in India

Traditional Indian Approach

  • Principles: Dharma, alms, mercy, dakshina, renunciation.

  • Values: Self-sacrifice, self-government, helpful thoughts, and collective welfare.


Ancient Origins

  • Evolution: From disorganized groups to structured societies addressing poverty and disease, leading to labor division and social welfare development.


Constitutional Guarantees

  • Indian Constitution: Guarantees political, socio-economic justice, unity, dignity, and social welfare through Directive Principles of State Policy.


Key Articles

  • Article 38: Promotes welfare and justice.

  • Article 39a: Equal right to livelihood.

  • Article 43: Provides work, wage, and standard of living.

  • Article 41: Public assistance for unemployment, old age, disease.

  • Article 46: Protects weaker sections from injustice and exploitation.


Social Welfare Administration in India

  • Post-Independence: Adoption of CSWB (1953), state-level boards, Department of Social Security (1960, now Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment).

  • Programs: Welfare for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, women, children, minorities, vulnerable groups.



Right to Education in India

International Context

  • UN Declaration: Guarantees free education in elementary stages for personality and dignity development.


Views on Education

  • Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan: Medium for change.

  • Dr. B.R. Ambedkar: Dispel ignorance.

  • Amartya Sen: Essential for freedom and fulfilling life.


Constitutional Provisions

  • Concurrent List: Allows central legislation.

  • International Commitments: UNCRC, MDG, SDG, SAARC Declaration.


Historical Context

  • Post-Independence: Low literacy and enrollment rates, focus on universal free elementary education.



Right to Education Act, 2009

  • Fundamental Right: Free and compulsory education for children aged 6-14.

  • Challenges: Quality, accessibility, basic literacy skills, substandard education.


National Education Policy (NEP) 2020

  • Goals: Universal education by 2040, quality, accessibility, affordability, holistic development, vocational education, addressing disparities.


National Health Mission in India

Context of Health

  • Challenges: Health infrastructure, sanitation, disease transmission, poverty, poor living conditions, hygiene, air pollution, lack of safe drinking water, nutritious food.



Historical Perspective

  • Improvements: Increased life expectancy, more hospitals and doctors, health-related expenditure.


National Health Mission

  • Components: Rural and Urban Health Missions, RMNCH+A, combating diseases.

  • Objectives: Reduce fertility, infant mortality, maternal mortality, combat diseases, improve health systems.


Challenges and Criticisms

  • Funding: Low public health expenditure, need for increased investment.


Ayushman Bharat Program

  • Launch: 2018, improve healthcare at all levels.

  • Components: PM-JAY, Health and Wellness Centers.

  • Aim: Financial protection, affordable healthcare.


Current Health Data

  • Expenditure: 1.6% of GDP.

  • Doctor-population ratio: 1:1456.

  • IMR: 32 per 1000 live births.

  • MMR: 113 per 100,000 live births.

  • TFR: 2.2.


Conclusion

  • Importance: Social welfare is crucial for India's development and democracy.

  • Government's Role: Essential in implementing policies, addressing challenges.

  • Approach: Flexible and combined methods needed for effective social welfare.



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