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UNIT-1 The Constituent Assembly and the Constitution Notes | STUDYSHIP BA Hons Semester 3 Notes

Hi students, welcome to Studyship. Below given notes are for the Constitutional Government and Democracy in India DSC 9. As being DU alumina , notes are as per DU syllabus of BA Hons political science for semester 3. Would love to hear from you all if liked the notes, so let's start...



 

The Constituent Assembly and the Constitution:




A) Philosophy of the Constitution, the Preamble, and Features:

Philosophy of the Constitution

  • Democratic Values: Enshrines principles of democracy, republicanism, secularism, and federalism.

  • Social Justice: Strives for economic and social justice, ensuring the welfare of all citizens.

  • Dignity and Individual Rights: Emphasizes the protection of individual rights and dignity.




The Preamble:

  • Foundation of Ideals: Outlines the objectives of the Constitution, ensuring justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

  • Reflects Aspirations: Represents the vision of an inclusive, just, and progressive society.

Features of the Constitution:

  • Written Constitution: Comprehensive document with specific provisions, outlining fundamental principles and governance.

  • Federal Structure: Division of powers between the Union (central) and State governments, establishing a cooperative framework.

  • Fundamental Rights: Protects individual liberties such as right to equality, freedom of speech, and cultural and educational rights.

  • Directive Principles of State Policy: Non-justiciable principles aimed at guiding state policies for ensuring social justice, economic welfare, and political liberty.

  • Parliamentary Democracy: Adopts a parliamentary system of government with a President as the head of state.



B) Citizenship, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles, and Fundamental Duties:

Citizenship:

  • Qualification Criteria: Defines who qualifies as a citizen of India, distinguishing between natural-born, acquired, and overseas citizens.

  • Rights and Responsibilities: Entails rights like the right to vote and participate in governance, coupled with duties towards the nation.



Fundamental Rights:

  • Individual Liberties: Safeguards basic freedoms essential for the development and dignity of citizens.

  • Rights Categories: Includes right to equality, freedom of speech, right to life, and personal liberty, among others.

  • Guardian Against Arbitrary State Action: Aims to protect individuals from misuse of state power.

Directive Principles of State Policy:

  • Guiding Principles: Offers a roadmap for the government to frame laws and policies, aiming at social justice, economic welfare, and equitable distribution of resources.

  • Moral Compass for Governance: Provides a vision for the state to achieve a just and humane society.



Fundamental Duties:

  • Moral and Ethical Duties: Intends to promote a sense of responsibility and commitment among citizens towards the nation.

  • Integral Part of Citizenship: Encourages citizens to contribute towards the welfare and integrity of the nation.



Conclusion: The Constituent Assembly meticulously designed the Indian Constitution as a comprehensive framework guiding the nation's governance and societal values. Its philosophical underpinnings, as articulated in the Preamble, highlight the commitment to justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity. The features embedded within the Constitution, including federalism, fundamental rights, directive principles, and fundamental duties, lay the foundation for a just, equitable, and democratic society. Understanding and upholding these foundational principles are integral to ensuring a cohesive, progressive, and inclusive Indian society.




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