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UNIT-1 LOCATING GLOBAL POLITICS NOTES

Hi students

These are the latest notes for DU Semester 4 BA hons Political science course. I would be updating entire syllabus of core papers along with video lectures. So stay tuned on our website and youtube channel. This is Krati from Studyship with krati signing out as of now and you check notes given below!🫡🫡


 

Introduction

  • Eurocentric views claim Western development independent of the East.

  • John Hobson reveals Eastern contributions to Western progress through "oriental globalization."



Eastern Contributions to Western Development

  • Ideas, inventions, technologies, and institutions from the East propelled Western civilization.

  • Dependency of Europeans on Eastern resources and markets for progress.


Historical Evidence of Eastern Advancements

  • Islamic, African, Chinese, and Indian discoveries preceded Western achievements.

  • China's industrial progress and agricultural revolution predated the West's.



Post-Imperial World Order and Anti-Colonial Movements

  • Movement of self-determination and anti-colonialism reshaped global politics.

  • Bandung Conference (1955) and Non-Aligned Movement challenged Western dominance.


Development of Global Politics

  • West versus rest narrative justified imperialism and colonialism.

  • East's role in Western development often ignored in historiography.


Shifts in Global Order

  • Cold War era (1947-1991) led to decolonization and emergence of new power centers.

  • Multilateralism and rise of new economies challenge Western dominance.




Eastern Origin of Western Civilization Thesis

  • West's rise rooted in Eastern civilizations' ideas and resources.

  • Contribution of Arabs, Afro-Asians, and Africans often overlooked in historiography.


Implications for Modern Global Dynamics

  • Understanding Eastern contributions essential for a more balanced view of history.

  • Shifts in global order highlight the resurgence of Asia and Global South, challenging Western dominance.



Eurocentric and Non-Eurocentric Discourse

Western Perception vs. Eastern Reality

  • The West historically viewed itself as progressive, rational, and civilized, contrasting with the East depicted as barbaric and stagnant.

  • The "theory of oriental despotism" and "White Man's Burden" concept justified Western imperialism and domination over the East.


Orientalism and Western Exceptionalism

  • Orientalist scholars like Rudyard Kipling perpetuated the idea that East and West are fundamentally different and can never converge.

  • The Eurocentric view credits Western civilization's roots to ancient Greece and Rome, later revived during the Renaissance and Reformation periods.



Marxist and Weberian Perspectives

  • Marx and Weber also viewed history through a Eurocentric lens, attributing Western progress to rational institutions and historical progress.

  • However, this perspective overlooks the East's role in propelling Western development.


Critiques of Eurocentrism

  • Scholars like James Blaut criticize Eurocentrism for its narrow view of history and failure to acknowledge Eastern contributions.

  • Historical evidence suggests that many Western innovations were actually first developed in the East.




Reassessing Global History

  • Oriental globalization theory challenges Eurocentric views, suggesting a longer historical perspective.

  • Scholars like Edward Said and Martin Bernal criticize Eurocentrism for its cultural bias and racism.


Globalization and Eastern Influence

  • The rise of new powers like China and India challenges Western hegemony, suggesting a shift in global dynamics.

  • Early globalization, often overlooked, shows that the East played a significant role in shaping global history.




Emergence of New Powers

  • The growth of G20, BRICS, and other emerging economies signifies a shift in global power.

  • The rise of Asia as an economic powerhouse challenges Western dominance and validates the importance of understanding Eastern contributions to global development.




In conclusion, the Eurocentric view of history has long overshadowed the contributions of the East to global development. While the West has portrayed itself as the harbinger of progress and civilization, historical evidence suggests a more complex and interconnected narrative. The theory of oriental globalisation challenges the idea of a unidirectional flow of ideas and innovation from West to East, highlighting the role of the East in shaping Western development.


Critiques of Eurocentrism, such as those by James Blaut and others, emphasize the need for a more inclusive and balanced view of history that acknowledges the contributions of all civilizations. The rise of new economic powers in Asia and the increasing interconnectedness of the global economy underscore the importance of reassessing historical narratives to better reflect the complexities of global interactions.

Moving forward, it is essential to recognize and celebrate the diversity of human experience and achievement.


By embracing a more inclusive and holistic view of history, we can gain a deeper understanding of the interconnectedness of our world and work towards a more equitable and just future for all.






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Apr 06
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