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NCERT CLASS 12th HISTORY CHAPTER 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES NOTES

1. Beginnings

  • These cultures were associated with distinctive pottery, evidence of agriculture and pastoralism, and Some crafts.

  • Settlements were generally small.

  • Reasons for a break between Early Harappan and the Harappan civilization was large-scale burning at some sites.

2. Subsistence Strategies

  • The Harappan ate a wide range of plant and animals products, including fish

  • Archaeologists reconstructed dietary practices from finds of charred Grains and Seeds.

  • Grains found at Harappan Sites include wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and Sesame.

  • Millets are found from sites jn Gujrat

  • Animals bone found at Harappan sites includes those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig.

2.1 Agricultural technologies

  • Seals and terracotta Sculpture indicate that bull was known and given as evidence for ploughing (Choliston & Banawali)

  • Evidence of a ploughed field also found at kalibangan (Rajasthan)

  • Pattern of growing crop

  • The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other.

  • Location of Harappan Sites mostly are in semi arid lands (because of the irrigation facilities)

  • traces of canals found at -

  • Shortughai in Afghanistan

  • traces of reservoirs-

  • Dholavira (Gujrat)

3. Mohanjodaro 

  • A planned urban center 

  • The settlement is divided into two Sections

Citadel

The Lower Town

Smaller but higher

Lower Town Much larger but lower

Constructed