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CLASS 12TH Security in the Contemporary World Notes

What is Security?

At basics, security implies freedom from threats. But in actuality, security relates only to extremely dangerous threats that could so endanger Core Values that would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation.

Traditional Notions: External

  • In the traditional conception of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats.

  • The source of this danger is another country that by threatening action endangers the core values of Sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity.

In responding to the threat of war, a government has three basic choices:

  1. To Surrender

  2. To prevent

  3. To defend

  • Therefore, security policy is concerned with preventing war, which is called deterrence and with limiting or ending the war, which is called defense.

  • Traditional security policy has a third component Called balance Bowen, which means to build. up one's military power. (economic and technological power)

  • A fourth and related component of traditional security policy is alliance building. An alliance is a Coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack.

  • The US backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan. against the Soviet Union in the 1980s, but later attacked them when Al-Qaeda - a group of Islamic militants led by Osama bin Laden launched terrorist strikes against America on 11 September 2001.

  • In traditional view of security then most threats to a country's security comes. from outside its borders

Traditional Notions: Internal

  • Asia and Africa newly-independent countries faced. Security challenges.

  • The new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries. Another they had to worry about internal military conflict with neighbouring countries.

  • Internal wars now make up more than 95% of all armed conflicts fought anywhere in the world.

  • Between 1946 and 1991, there was a twelve-fold rise in the number of civil wars.

Traditional Security And Cooperation

  • An universally accepted view that countries should only go to war for the right reasons.

  • Armies must avoid killing or hunting non-combatants as well as unarmed and surrending combatants.

Cooperation includes three important forms:-


  • It requires all state to give up Certain kinds of weapons. For ex- the 1972 BWC and the 1992 CWC banned the production and possession of these weapons.

  • More than 155 states acceded to the BWC and 181 states acceded to CWC. included all the great powers.

2. Arm Control:

  • It regulates the acquisition or development of weapons. The Anti-ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in 1972 tried to stop the US and Soviet Union from ballistic missiles as a defensive shield to launch a nuclear attack.

  • It did allow both countries to deploy a very limited number of defensive systems.

3. Confidence Building:

  • It is a process in which Countries share ideas and information with their rivals. Share their military intentions and military plans.

  • We can say confidence building is a process designed to ensure that rivals do not go to war through misunderstanding or misconception.

Non-tradional Notions

Non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence, which means global security

1.Human Security:

It is about the protection of people more than the protection of state. Because concept of human security argue that the threat agenda should Include hunger, disease and natural disasters because these kill far more people than war, genocide. and terrorism combined.

2.Global Security:

The idea of global security emerged. in the 1990's in response to the global nature of threats such as global warming, international terrorism and health epidemics, bird flue, and so.

No country can pesolve these problems alone.

For ex- Due to global warming a sea level rise 15-20 meters would. flood 20% of Bangladesh, inundate most of the Maldives and threaten, nearly' half of the population of Thailand.

New Sources of Threats

1. Terrorism:

  • It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.

  • Civiliant targets are usually chosen to terrorism the public as a weapon against the national government or state parties in conflict.

  • for ex- Hijacking plane, planting bomb in trains, cafes, markets, and other crowded places.

2.Human Rights:

There are of three types :-

  1. Political right - include freedom of speech and assembly.

  2. Economic rights - Social right.

  3. Third is right of colonised people or ethnic and indigenous.

3. Global Poverty:

  • Another source of insecurity. Among the world's poorest countries population is expected to triple in the next 50 years.

  • Currently, half the world's population growth occurred in just Six countries-India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria Bangladesh, and Indonesia.

  • Sub-Saharan Africa which is also the poorest region of the world.


  • poverty in south leds to large scale mirgration to seek better life, especially better economic opportunites in north.

  • People who fled their homes but remain within national borders are called 'internally displaced people

  • Kashmiri Pandit are the examples of an internally displaced community.

  • From 1930 to 1935, 70 states were involved in 93 wars which killed about 55 lakh people.

5. Health Epidemics

  • Diseases like HIV, AIDS, bird flu, and Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have rapidly spread through migration, business, tourism, and military cooperation.

  • By 2003 an estimated 4 crore people were infected with HIV or AIDS worldwide.

  • Two-thirds of them are in Africa and half of the rest are in South Asia.

  • Other new disasters such as Ebola Virus, hantavirus, and hepatitis C have emerged, while old diseases like TB, malaria, dengue, fever, and cholera have mutated into drug-resistant forms that are difficult to threaten.

  • Since the 1990s Britain has lost billions of dollars of income during an outbreak of the Mad - Cow disease and bird flu shut down suplies of poultry exports from several Asia countries.

Cooperative Security

Government organizations:

WHO,WTO,IMF,World Bank,etc.

Non-Government Organisations:

Amnesty International, the red cross, private foundations, charities, churches, and religious organizations, trade unions associations social and developmental organizations, business and cooperations, and great personalities - Nelson Mandela, Mother Teressa, etc.

India's security Strategy:

India's security has four broad components:

  1. the first component was strengthening its military capabilities.

  2. to strengthen its international norms and international institutions to protect its security interest.

  3. to geared towards meeting security challenges within the country.

  4. finally there is been an attempt in india to develop its economy in a way that the vast masses of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist.


Terrorism :

  • Terrorism refers to the systematic use of brutal violence that creates an atmosphere of fear in society.

  • It is used for many purposes, very prominently politico-religious purposes.

    • There could be three broad meanings of terrorism:

      1. A systematic use of terror, often violent, especially as a means of coercion.

      2. Violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror); are perpetrated for a religious, political or, ideological goal; and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians).

      3. Acts of unlawful violence and war.

  • There is not a single nation in the world that does not suffer from terrorism.

  • Although some countries have tried to divide terrorism into good and bad terrorism, India has always denied this distinction.

  • India's current Prime Minister Narendra Modi has also clarified that terrorism cannot be divided into good or bad; it is a global problem and should be combated collectively.

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16. Dez. 2023
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Very helpful notes

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