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Updated: Oct 9, 2022


  • At the hour of midnight on 14 -15 August, India attend independence.

  • Tryst with destiny was the speech given by the Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in a special session of the constituent assembly.


Two goals for the new nation to achieve:

  • To run our country through democratic government.

  • And government will work for all particularly the poor and the socially disadvantaged groups.

 Independent India Faced 3 Kinds Of Challenges

  • To shaped nation that was United yet accommodative of diversity in our society.

  • To establish democracy.

  • To ensure the development and well being of entire society and not only for some sections

Partition Displacement And Rehabilitation

On 14 -15 August two Nations came into existence India and Pakistan.

Two Nation Theory 

This Theory Advanced By Muslim League, India Consisted Of Not one but two 'people', Hindus and Muslims. So it demanded Pakistan, a separate country for Muslims . however Congress opposed this theory and this created political tension between two parties led to the creation of Pakistan by British.

Process Of Partition

  • Areas where the Muslims were in majority would make-up the territory of Pakistan .the rest was to stay with India.

  • While partition basically they faced problems:

  •  there were two areas of concentration of Muslims one in East and another in West.

  • Secondly not all Muslim areas wanted to be in  Pakistan, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, leader of North Western Frontier province (NWFP) ,(known as Frontier Gandhi ( opposed two nation theory. 

  • Third, Punjab and Bengal , Muslim majority provinces have very areas where the non Muslims were in majority.

  • Hence, partition decision could not be made by the midnight of 14 -15 August.

Consequences Of Partition

  1. This petition has known as one of most unplanned and tragic transfer of population in human history.

  2. Many people killed in the name of religion. 

  3. Most affected areas were: Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata.

  4. Forced to abandon their homes and move across borders.

  5. Women were killed by their own family members to preserve the 'family honor'.

  6. For people the country is freedom meant life in 'refugee camps'.

  7. Many said this partition as a 'division of hearts'.

  8. It is estimated that partition force about 8 million people to migrate across new border.

  9. Indian leaders opposed partition.

  10.  5 to 10 lakh people were killed. 

  11. According to 1951, India accounted for 12% Muslims of total population.

Integration Of Princely States


1. Total number of princely states 565.

2.These states were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent.

3. Rulers of Travancore, Hyderabad and Bhopal declared their state 'independent'.

Government Approach

  • Interim government to a firm stance against the division of India into small principalities of different sizes. 

  • Sardar Patel played a crucial role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states.

The government's approach was guided by three considerations:

  1. People of princely states wanted to join Indian union.

  2. Government was ready to give autonomy to some regions.

  3. Thirdly, the integration and consolidation of territorial  boundaries of the nation had assumed supreme importance.

Instrument Of Accession

The rulers of most of the state signed a document called instrument of accession. which meant that is state agreed to become a part of the union of India. accession of princely states of Junagarh ,Hyderabad ,Kashmir and Manipur proved difficult.


  • One of the largest princely states.

  • its ruler carried the title , Nizam and one of the richest person in world .

  • in November 1947 signed an agreement known as standstill agreement for a year.

  • Nizam was very oppressive to its people .so many started movement against him particularly peasantry in Telangana region.

  • Nizam responded by unleashing a paramilitary force known as razakars on the people.

  • When atrocities is reached to Apex Central Government order the army to tackle the situation.

  • Finally, in September of 1948, the Nizam surrendered, led to Hyderabad's accession to India.


  • Maharaja of Manipur Bodh Chandra Singh, signed the instrument of accession with the Indian government on insurance of internal autonomy.

  • Government of India (GOI) succeeded in pressurizing the maharaja into signing a merger agreement in September 1949 ,without consulting the popularly elected legislative assembly of Manipur.

Reorganization of States

  • Indian government appointed the states reorganization commission in 1953, for redrawing the boundaries of States.

  • On the basis of which report the states reorganization act was passed in 1956.

  • State boundaries were on the basis of different language.

  • This led to the creation of 14 states and 6 union territories

Vishal Andhra movement

Movement for a separate Andhra demanded that the Telugu speaking areas should be separated from the Madras province of which they were a part and be made into a separate Andhra province.

  1. The states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were created in 1960.

  2. Haryana and Himachal Pradesh was separated from the larger Punjab state in 1966

  3. Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972.

  4. The states of Mizoram and and Arunachal Pradesh came into being in 1987.

  5. Nagaland became state much earlier in 1963.

  6. Three States Chhattisgarh ,Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand work created in 2000.

  7. Telangana state was carved out from Andhra Pradesh in 2014.

Patel And National Integration

  1. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel the first deputy prime minister and home minister of India. 

  2. Emerged as a major leader of the freedom movement after the Kheda Satyagraha 1918 and the Bardoli Satyagraha 1928

  3. Sardar did the  most difficult task of that time by uniting all 565 princely states of India. 

  4. He Is also known as iron man of India remained intransigence on issuance of territorial integrity of India.

  5. Sardar faced key challenges of integration from three states viz, Hyderabad, Junagarh, and Kashmir.

  6. Under his leadership India forces compelled Hyderabad and Junagadh to merge with India.

  7. He had different opinion on Kashmir from other leaders and was against two nation theory also.

  8. Due to political decisions of prominent leaders, sardar could not succeeded in integrating Kashmir fully with India which later turned into a major historical blunder for the country.

Sardar Patel As NCR In Indian Political Theory

N -Nationalist

Means a person who strong identifies with their nation and vigorously support its interest.


C - Catalyst

Means of personality who has ability to precipitates an event or change.

Such people talk enthusiastically and this energy causes others to be more friendly.


R - Realist

Means sardar had  a good grip on the reality of the situation and used to understand what can be done and cannot be done.

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