top of page

CLASS 12TH POLITICAL SCIENCE CH-3 CONTEMPORARY SOUTH ASIA NOTES

INTRODUCTION

  • South Asia usually includes the following countries Bangladesh , Bhutan , Nepal , Pakistan , India and Sri Lanka and Maldives.

  • South Asia stands for diversity in every sense and yet constitutes one geo political sense.

  • Despite many problems and limitations, Sri Lanka and India have successfully operated a democratic system since their independence from the British.

  • Pakistan and Bangladesh have experience both civilians and military rulers , with Bangladesh remaining a democracy in the post cold war period.

  • Pakistan began the post cold war period with successive democratic government under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif respectively.

  • It suffered a military coup in 1999 and has been run by a military regime since then.

  • Till 2006, Nepal a successful popular uprising led to the Restoration of democracy after constitutional monarchy.

  • Bhutan is still a monarchy but the king has initiated plans for its transition to multiparty democracy.

  • The Maldives (Island nation) was a sultanate till 1968 when it was transformed into a republic with a presidential form of Government.

  •  the Maldivian democratic party (MDP), now it has multi party system dominates the political affairs of the island.

The Military And Democracy In Pakistan


(A) General Ayub Khan (1958)

  • Took over the administration of country

  • Elected himself

  • Gave up office where there was dissatisfaction

  • Again his own rule.


(B.)Generally Yahya Khan

  • (military take over once again in 1977)

  • during his time, Pakistan faced Bangladesh crisis 1971.


(C) Elected Government 

  • Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1971 - 77)

(D) general Zia - ul haq

  • Faced pro-democracy movement (from1982).


(E) elected government in 1988

  •  Benazir Bhutto


(F) during this time Pakistan politics  centered around 

Pakistan peoples party and the Muslim league

Army step in again in 1999.


(G) general Pervez Musharraf

  • Remove PM Nawaz Sharif 

  • in 2001 elected himself as president




Factors contributing to failure of democracy in Pakistan.

  • Social dominance of military , clergy and landholding aristocracy.

  • Pakistan conflict with India has made the pro military groups more powerful.

  • Thus , Democracy has not been successful in Pakistan

  • Lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan.

  • example :- US and other Western countries have increased the military rule for their own reasons ( global Islamic terrorism).

  • Military regime in Pak has been seen as the protector of Western interest in West Asia and South Asia

Democracy in Bangladesh

  • Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan from 1947 to 1971 consisted areas of Bengal and Assam.

  • Reasons of separation from Pakistan

    1. Domination of Western Pakistan

    2. Imposition of Urdu language

    3. Unfair representation in administration.

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

  • Led the popular struggle against west Pakistan domination.

  • In 1970 election, awami league led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman won all seats in East Pakistan.

  • Proposed constituent assembly for the whole of Pakistan.

  • West Pakistan leadership refused to convene the assembly

  • Mujib was arrested.


  • Thousands were killed by Pakistan army and this year to the war, in 1971 between Pakistan and India that ended in the surrender of Pakistani forces in east Pakistan.

  •  and formation of Bangladesh as an independent country.

Nepal

  • Nepal was a Hindu Kingdom in the past but later changed into a constitutional monarchy for many years.

  • The king accepted the demand for a new democratic constitution in 1992 after strong pro-democracy movement.

  • There was a conflict among the democrats, Maoists and monarchists forces which led to the abolition of parliament and dismissal of government in 2002 by the king.

  • After a  Pro democratic movement , again in 2006 , the king was forced to restore the house of representatives.

Sri Lanka

  • The democratic setup of Sri Lanka was disturbed by the ethnic conflict among the Sinhalese and Tamil origin people.

  • Sinhalese believe the region  of Ceylon belong to Sinhala  people only and not to the Tamils (origin is India).

  • This led to the formation of liberation tiger of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) , a militant organization.

  • The Government of India signed an Accord with Sri Lanka and sent troops to stabilize relations between the Sri Lankan Government and the Tamil.

  • Eventually the Indian army got into a fight with the LTTE later on the Indian peace keeping force IPKF was called out of Sri Lanka in 1989 without achieving it seems.

  • In spite of the ethnic conflict, the economy of Sri Lankan has always been high.

India And Its Other Neighbors

  • Neighboring countries of India are Bangladesh, Nepal , Sri Lanka, Pakistan , Bhutan  and Maldives.

  • conflicts between India and Bangladesh include sharing of Ganga and Brahmaputra river water and illegal immigration to India etc.

  •  both India and Bangladesh share a cordial relation with each other. Economic relations between the two have improved considerably.

  •  Nepal and India shares a friendly relation with each other but certain issues like warm relation of Nepal with China , Maoists movements in Nepal have disturbed the relation.

  • But still both the countries are together on trade, scientific, cooperation, electric generation and inter locking water management.

  • India enjoys a very special relationship with Bhutan too and does not have any major conflict with the Bhutanese government.


Peace and cooperation

  • There are certain issues of conflicts among the South Asian countries.

  • The South Asian countries initiated the establishment of South Asian Association for regional cooperation ( SAARC) in 1985 to evolve cooperation among each other.

  • The SAFTA was signed in 2004 by the South Asian countries to allow free trade across the borders. 

  • SAFTA aims at lowering trade tariffs by 20% 

  • By 2007.

  • However, there has been issues between India and Pakistan, measures were being taken to bring cordial changes between the countries.

  • China and USA remain key players in South Asia politics. Thus, there are also on outside power which influence the region.













8,758 views1 comment

1 Comment

Rated 0 out of 5 stars.
No ratings yet

Add a rating
Guest
Oct 29, 2023
Rated 4 out of 5 stars.

overall this is superb but some points are not explained here

Like
bottom of page