CLASS 12TH POLITICAL SCIENCE CH-2 NEW CENTRES OF POWER NOTES

Updated: Sep 4

European Union

  • Marshall plan was launched under which America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe's economy.

  • Under the Marshall plan the organization for European economic cooperation (OEEC)was established in 1948 to channel aid  to the west European states.

  • The council of Europe, stablished in 1949 was another step forward in political cooperation.

  • Next step lead to the formation of European economic community in 1957.

  • European union established in 1992, for a common foreign and security policy cooperation on justice and home affairs and the creation of single currency.

  • EU has its own Flag ,anthem ,founding date and currency. 

  • The EU has economic ,political and diplomatic and military influence.

  • The EU is the world's biggest economy with a GDP of more than $ 12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than USA. 

  • EU currency the euro ,can pose  threat to the dominance of the US dollar.

  • EU share of World Trade is three times larger than that of the  of United States.

  • Two members of EU , Britain and France, hold permanent seat on the UN security council ,as well as several  non-permanent members of the UNSC.

  • Military, the EU 's combined armed  are the second largest in the world .Its Total spending on defense is second after the US. 

  • EU members, Britain and France also have nuclear  arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads.

  • But sometime EU member state have their own foreign policy which did not favour EU interest for example 

  • Britain PM Tony Blair was America's  partner in the Iraq invasion.

  • Many  EU  newer member made of the US led  coalition of the willing where as Germany and France opposed American policy.

  •  Britain former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher kept  the UK out of the EU market.

  • Denmark and Sweden has resisted the Maastricht Treaty, and the adoption of the euro.

  • Thus, this  limits the ability of the EU to act in  matters of foreign relations and defense.


Flag of EU

  • The European flag symbolizes both the European Union and, more broadly, the identity and unity of Europe.

  • It features a circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background.

  • They stand for the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of Europe.

ASEAN

  • Association of South East Asian Nations

  • Established:-1976.

  • (five)Founder countries :-

  1. Indonesia

  2. Malaysia

  3. Philippines

  4. Singapore

  5. Thailand

  • Existence :- After Bangkok Declaration

  • ASEAN Flag : 10 stalk ( paddy) rice. (solidarity and friendship)

  • Circle symbolise unity

Objectives of ASEAN

Three Pillars

1.ASEAN security community:-

  • Territorial dispute should not escalate into armed confrontations.


2. ASEAN economic community:-

  • common market

  • production base

  • Free Trade Area

  • Dispute Settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.


3. ASEAN Socio- cultural Community:-

  • Improving existing ASEAN.

  • Promoting cultural activities and mutual cooperation in the population control, sports and education.

ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) [1994] :

To coordinate security and foreign policy.

PRIMARY OBJ.

Economic growth through social progress and cultural development.

SECONDARY OBJ.

Regional peace and stability based on principles of UN charter.


ASEAN WAY :-

Countries have celebrated , a form of informal , non- confrontationist and cooperative interaction known as ASEAN Way.


ASEAN Vision of 2020 :-

Outward looking role in international community





The Rise Of Chinese Economy

  • China now turn to the third major alternative center of power.

  • It is projected to overtake the US as the world's largest economy by 2040 .China influence regional affairs. 

  • The strength of its economy along with factors like population, land mass, resources , regional location and political influence add  to its power in significant ways.

  • The China economic was based on the Soviet model under leadership of Mao.

  • And China chose to adopt capitalist model to establish  the foundation of an industrial economy.

  • Employment and social welfare was assured to all citizen. the economy also grew at the respectable rate of 5-6 %.

  • Annual growth of  2-3% in population was not sufficient to meet the needs of growing population.

  • Agricultural  production was not sufficient to generate a surplus for industry.

  • In China major policy decision taken in 1970s.

  • China ended  its political and economic isolation with the USA in 1972.

  • Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the 'four modernizations ' ( agricultural ,industry, science and technology and military)  in 1973.

  • In 1978, the leader Deng Xiaoping  announced the 'open door' policy and economic reforms in China.

  • To generate higher productivity by investment of capital and technology from abroad open door policy were  introduced.

  • The privatization of agriculture in 1982 followed by the privatization of industry 1998.

  • Trade barriers were eliminated only in special economic zone (SEZs).

  • Privatization led to the faster economic growth rate and rise in foreign trade.

  • China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment( FDI) anywhere in the world.

  • Another step towards opening was China accession to the WTO in 2001 .

  • But this economy improvement has created many problems such as :-

  1. Unemployment has rise nearly 100 million people looking for jobs .

  2. Poor  females employment and working condition.

  3.  environmental degradation and corruption has increased .

  4. Rise in economic inequality between rural and urban residents.

INDIA CHINA Relation

  • Military conflict over a border dispute between the two countries in 1962 ( Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai chin region of Ladakh)

  • Chinese takeover of Tibet in 1950 and the final settlement of  the Sino and Indian border.

  • Diplomatic relation between two countries were downgraded until 1976.

  • A series of talks to resolve the border issue in were  initiated in 1981. 

  • Rajiv Gandhi visit to China in December 1988 to improve the Indo China relations.

  • Since the both Government have taken measure to contain conflict  and maintain 'peace and tranquility on the border, signed  agreement on culture exchanges and cooperation in science and technology ,and opened  for border posts for trade.

  • Bilateral trade between India and China has increased from $338 million in 1992 to more than $18 billion in 2006.

  • Both countries adopted similar economic policies in international economic institutions like the WTO. 

  • China was seen as contributing to the build up of Pakistan's  nuclear programme.

  • Thus, increasing transportation  and communication links, common economic interests  establish a more positive and sound relationship between  the two.


BRICS

  • The term BRICS refers to

B Brazil        

R Russia 

I India 

C China 

S South Africa

  • Was Founded In 2006 In Russia 

  • BRIC  turned into BRICS after the inclusion of South Africa in its first meeting in 2009

Objective 

  • To cooperate and distribute mutual economic benefits among its members besides non- interference in the internal policies of each nation and mutual equality.

  • 11th conference of BRICS in Brazil chaired by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro.

RUSSIA

  • Largest part of Soviet union was Russia .

  • Dissolution of USSR ,led Russia the strong successor of USSR

  • Russia 's GDP is currently 11th in the world with 2.3 % annual change (2018)

  • Russia has reserves of minerals ,natural resources and gases that makes it a powerful country in the global world

  • Russia is a nuclear state with huge stock of sophisticated weapons and permanent member of UN security council, called P-5.

INDIA 

  • Emerging global power 

  • Rising in multinational way 

  • Population of 130 crores

  • Growing alternative center of power in 21st century 

  • 5th most important military in world 


  • From an economic perspective ,India targeting the goal of a $5 trillion economy ,a competitive huge market

  • From a strategic perspective, the military of India is self sufficient with indigenous nuclear technology.

  • Make in India scheme in technology and science is another milestone of Indian economy.


ISRAEL

  • Emerged as one of the most powerful country in terms of  science and technology, defense and intelligence .

  • Situated in middle of the burning politics of West Asian Countries.

  • Factors of emerging power

  1. Indomitable defense prowess

  2. Technological innovations 

  3. Industrial development

  4. Agricultural development

  • Sustaining against adversity is the principle with a Jewish Zionist nation ,Israel is contemporary alternative center.






















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