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CLASS 12TH POLITICAL SCIENCE CH-2 NEW CENTRES OF POWER NOTES

Updated: Sep 4, 2022

European Union

  • Marshall plan was launched under which America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe's economy.

  • Under the Marshall plan the organization for European economic cooperation (OEEC)was established in 1948 to channel aid  to the west European states.

  • The council of Europe, stablished in 1949 was another step forward in political cooperation.

  • Next step lead to the formation of European economic community in 1957.

  • European union established in 1992, for a common foreign and security policy cooperation on justice and home affairs and the creation of single currency.

  • EU has its own Flag ,anthem ,founding date and currency. 

  • The EU has economic ,political and diplomatic and military influence.

  • The EU is the world's biggest economy with a GDP of more than $ 12 trillion in 2005, slightly larger than USA. 

  • EU currency the euro ,can pose  threat to the dominance of the US dollar.

  • EU share of World Trade is three times larger than that of the  of United States.

  • Two members of EU , Britain and France, hold permanent seat on the UN security council ,as well as several  non-permanent members of the UNSC.

  • Military, the EU 's combined armed  are the second largest in the world .Its Total spending on defense is second after the US. 

  • EU members, Britain and France also have nuclear  arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads.

  • But sometime EU member state have their own foreign policy which did not favour EU interest for example 

  • Britain PM Tony Blair was America's  partner in the Iraq invasion.

  • Many  EU  newer member made of the US led  coalition of the willing where as Germany and France opposed American policy.

  •  Britain former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher kept  the UK out of the EU market.

  • Denmark and Sweden has resisted the Maastricht Treaty, and the adoption of the euro.

  • Thus, this  limits the ability of the EU to act in  matters of foreign relations and defense.


Flag of EU

  • The European flag symbolizes both the European Union and, more broadly, the identity and unity of Europe.

  • It features a circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background.

  • They stand for the ideals of unity, solidarity and harmony among the peoples of Europe.

ASEAN

  • Association of South East Asian Nations

  • Established:-1976.

  • (five)Founder countries :-

  1. Indonesia

  2. Malaysia