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12TH POLITICAL SCIENCE CH-1 NOTES THE END OF BIPOLARITY

Updated: Oct 9, 2022

DEFINITIONS


1. BIPOLARITY: It is the system of world order in which the majority of global economic , military and cultural influence is held between two states


2. UNIPOLARITY :affairs at international level are dominated by only one superpower.


3. SOCIALISM: socialism is a range of economic and social system characterized by social ownership and democratic control of the mean of production as well as the political theories associated with them example Russia.


4. SHOCK THERAPY: the model of transition from authoritarian and socialist system to a democratic capitalist system in Russia ,Central Asia and East Europe.


5. CAPITALISM: an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

for instance :- US follow ideology of capitalism.





SOVIET SYSTEM

  • The union of Soviet socialist republics (USSR) came into being in after the socialist revolution in Russia, 1917. 

  • Soviet system gave primary to the state and the institution of the party.

  • Its political system and centered around the communist party, no other was allowed

Main feature of Soviet system-

i) Very bureaucratic.

ii) Authoritarian

iii) Equality of outcomes.

  • 15 different republics that formed USSR to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs, but dominated by Russia

  • Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened  the system

GORBACHEV AND THE DISINTEGRATION

  • Mikhail Gorbachev, last leader of Soviet union introduced the economic and political reforms.

  • During Gorbachev , countries which were  part of the Soviet bloc started to protest against their own Governments and Soviet control.