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Updated: Oct 9, 2022


1. BIPOLARITY: It is the system of world order in which the majority of global economic , military and cultural influence is held between two states

2. UNIPOLARITY :affairs at international level are dominated by only one superpower.

3. SOCIALISM: socialism is a range of economic and social system characterized by social ownership and democratic control of the mean of production as well as the political theories associated with them example Russia.

4. SHOCK THERAPY: the model of transition from authoritarian and socialist system to a democratic capitalist system in Russia ,Central Asia and East Europe.

5. CAPITALISM: an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

for instance :- US follow ideology of capitalism.


  • The union of Soviet socialist republics (USSR) came into being in after the socialist revolution in Russia, 1917. 

  • Soviet system gave primary to the state and the institution of the party.

  • Its political system and centered around the communist party, no other was allowed

Main feature of Soviet system-

i) Very bureaucratic.

ii) Authoritarian

iii) Equality of outcomes.

  • 15 different republics that formed USSR to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs, but dominated by Russia

  • Invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened  the system


  • Mikhail Gorbachev, last leader of Soviet union introduced the economic and political reforms.

  • During Gorbachev , countries which were  part of the Soviet bloc started to protest against their own Governments and Soviet control.

  • His reforms were opposed by leaders within the communist party.

  • During this time Boris Yeltsin emerged as a national hero. He began to shake off centralized control power begin to shift from Soviet center to the republics. 

  • In December 1991 under the leadership of Yeltsin , Russia, Ukraine and Belarus , three Major republics of USSR declared that Soviet union was disbanded.

  • Hence, communist party was banned , capitalism and democracy were adopt as the base for the post -Soviet republic. 

  • The exclusion of these republics was an issue that was quickly solved by making them founding members of the CIS (Commonwealth Of Independent State).

  • Now Russia inherited the soviets seat in the UN security council.


  • Internal weakness of Soviet political and economic institution.

  • Soviet economic use much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military powers led to huge economic burden that system could not cope with.

  • System was not accountable to the people and party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens.

  • The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republic including Russia and the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) Ukraine, Georgia.

  • Gorbachev reforms increase nationalist dissatisfaction.


  • First, end of confrontation demand an end to this arms race and a possible new.

  • Second power relation in world politics changed and therefore, the relative influence of Ideas and institution also changed.

  • Third the end of the Soviet bloc mean the emergence of many new countries all these countries had their own independent aspirations and choices.


  • Shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controlled withdrawal of state subsite and immediate trade liberalization within a country usually also including large scale privatization of previously public on assets.


  1. A large state-owned industry were put up for sale at throwaway prices .this was known as the largest garage sale.

  2. The value of the ruble (Russian currency) declined.

  3. Collective farms was removed with no food security.

  4. The old trading structure was broken without any alternative.

  5. A new Mafia emerged which try to control economic activities by forces.

  6. Privatization widen   the gap between rich and poor.

  7. The old system of social welfare was destroyed and the government stop all subsites.


  • In Russia to republics, Chechnya and Dagestan, have had violent secessionist movement.

  • In Central Asia Tajikistan witnessed a civil war that went on for 10 years till 2001.

  • In Georgia, the demand for independence has come from two provinces ,resulting in a civil war.

  • In eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia split peacefully into two with the Czechs and and the Slovaks forming independent countries but the most served conflict took place in the Balkan republics of Yugoslavia


  • Indian relation with Russia and an important aspect of Indian foreign policy.

  • More then so, bilateral agreement have been signed between India and Russia as part of the Indo- Russian strategic agreement of 2001.

  • India stand to benefit from its relationship with Russia on issue like Kashmir, energy supply sharing information on international terrorism access to Central Asia etc.

  • Russia stands on benefit for its relationship with India on issues like the assistance of India during its oil crisis India is the second largest market for Russia.

Arab Spring

  • It refers to a democratic upspring that arose independently and spread  across the Arab world started in 2009

  • Origin: Tunisia In December 

  • And quickly took hold In Egypt, Libya, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia And Japan.


  1. Repression of human rights

  2. Poverty, no freedom

  3. Lots of disparity

  4. Press censorship

  5. Unemployment

When did revolution start?

  • Revolution started in Tunisia and begin with a single man in the markets of Tunisia spread to thousands of demanding political change for entire region.

  • The self-immolation of Muhammad Bouazizi( a common man), this created a sweeping way that respected none of the artificial drawn borders in the Muslim world.

  • The Role Of Hosni Mubarak is it was brought to an end after days of mass protest.

  • Tunisia is the only country where the revolutionaries outwitted the counter revolutionaries.

  • This country transitioned to a  multiparty democracy.

Middle East crisis of Afghanistan

  • On 11 in September 2001 ,attacks in America killed nearly 3,000 people

  • Osama bin Laden the head of Islamic terror group Al-Qaeda was identified as a man responsible.

  • The Taliban, Radical Islamist who ran Afghanistan and protected bin Laden who refuse to handover him.

  • A month after 9/11 the US launched air strikes against Afghanistan and this is known as "operation enduring freedom" against Al-Qaida And Tailem region.

  • Some prisoners were brought to Guantanamo bay , a US naval base in Cuba where international law doesn't apply.

Gulf war

  • The gulf war lasted between August 1990 and January 1991 ,was an international conflict that erupted after Iraq , under dictator  Saddam Husain (one of the most cruel ruler in world history.)

  • He invaded Kuwait.

  • The US. mandated the liberation of Kuwait by force. The US President George HW bush. Hailed The emergence of a new World order

  • Coalition force of 6,60000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it.

  • The first gulf war is also known as operation desert storm ( given by UN)

  • An American general Noman Schwarzkopf led  by UN and coalition nearly 75% force is were from the US.

  • Iraqi president , Saddam Hussein defeated and force to withdraw from Kuwait.

  • The war revealed the vast technological gap between the US military capability and that of other states.

  • Use of smart bombs by US led some observer to call this a "computer war ".

Commonwealth Of Independent State

  • Dissolution of USSR , lead to establishment of (CIS.)

  • The founding state of the CIS Included Belarus, Russia And Ukraine.

  • The commonwealth of independent state is a regional intergovernmental organization of the former Soviet republics  which is mainly focuses on political ,economic and environmental issues.

  • Currently there are 12 members Nations part of it.

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