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CLASS 12TH CH-4 United Nations and its Organizations NOTES

U.N. and its Organization:

The olive branch is a symbol of peace, while the world map represents the organization in its quest to attain world peace.


United Nations Significant Agencies


1.World Bank

  • Created in 1944

  • Works for you human development, agriculture and rural development, environmental protection , infrastructure and governance and provides loans and grants to developing countries.

  • Its headquarters is in Washington DC, USA.

  • It is criticised for setting the economic agenda of poorer Nations , attaching stringent conditions to its loans and forcing free market reforms.

2. International Monetary fund (IMF)

  • At the international level, overseas financial institutions and regulations.

  • It consists of 189 members , out of them , G-8 members enjoy more powers , i.e. , the US , Japan, Germany , France , the UK , Italy , Canada and Russia except china and Saudi Arabia.

  • The US alone enjoys 16.75% voting rights.

3. World Trade organization (WTO)

  • It was created on 1 January,1995.

  • An international organisation to set the rules for global trade which was set up as a successor to GATT.

  • currently it has 164 member state.

  • Major economic Powers such as the EU,US and Japan have managed to use the WTO to frame rulers of trade to advance their own interests.

4. International atomic energy agency (IAEA)

  • It was established in 1957 to implement US President Dwight Eisenhower's " Atoms for peace " proposal.

  • It seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to prevent it's use of for military purpose.

  • It regularly inspect nuclear Facilities all over the world to ensure that civilian reactor are not being used for military purposes

5. Amensty International

  • It is an NGO to campaign for the protection of human rights all over world

  • It prepares published reports on human rights to search and advocate human rights.

  • Major focus of Amensty is the misconduct of government authorities.


6. Human Rights watch

  • It's an international NGO involved in research and advocacy of human rights.

  • The largest international human rights organisation is in the US.

  • HRW draws the global media attention to human rights abuses.

  • It help in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban landmines , to stop to use of child soldier and to establish the international criminal court.


The United Nations

  • The UN was established in 1945 after the World war II and requires a successor to the league of nation.

  • Objective of UN is to prevent international conflict and to facilitate cooperation among States.

UN Principal Organs

1. UN general assembly - deliberative assembly

2. UN security council - maintenance of international peace and security.

3. UN secretariat - administrative organ.

4. International court of justice - universal court for International law ( hague)

5. UN economic and social council - global economical and social affairs.

6. UN trusteeship council- administering trust territories.


Two basic kinds of reforms face the UN :-

1. Reform of the organisation structure and process.

2. Review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation .


The resolution reflected three main complaints:-

1. The SC no longer represent contemporary politics realities.

2. It's decisions reflects only western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.

3. It lacks equitable representation.


Criteria for inclusion of a new member in security council :-

  • A major economic Power.

  • A major military power.

  • A substantial contributor to the UN budget.

  • A big nation in terms of population.

  • A nation that reflects democracy and human rights.

  • A country that would make the council more representative of the world's diversity in terms of geography, economic systems and culture.


Jurisdiction of the UN

  • A meeting was held in September 2005, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the UN and to review the situation.

  • And thus, below some suggestions were given by UN leaders:-


1. Creation of a peace building commission.

2. Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national govt. to protect their own citizens from atrocities.

3. Establishment of HRC ( since 19 june 2006).

4. Agreements to achieve the millennium development goals.

5. Condemnation of terrorism in all its form and manifestation.

6. Creation of a democracy fund. An agreement to wind up the trusteeship council.


India and the UN reforms

  • India's most important demand in to reconstruct the security council. It supports an increase in the number of both permanent and non- permanent members.

  • It also argues that an expanded council,with more representative , will enjoy greater support in the world community.

  • India itself wishes to be permanent member in a UN.


The UN In An Unipolar World

  • Many countries believe that the reform and the reconstructing of the UN could help the UN cope better with a unipolar world.

  • The US stands as the only superpower after the disintegration of USSR hence Us power cannot be easily checked.

  • UN largest contributor is US (it has unmatched financial power).

  • It is important for people to use and support the UN and other international organisation in ways that are consistent with their own interest.


UNESCO

  • The United nation educational scientific and cultural organisation UNESCO was established on 4 November 1946.

  • Its headquarter is in Paris, France.

Objective :-

1. To promote education , natural science society , and anthropology , culture and communication.

2. To promote Liberty, technical and educational training and independent media etc. all across its member nation.


UNICEF

  • The United Nations international children's emergency fund (UNICEF) was established in 1946 by UN general assembly.

  • It's headquarter is in New York, US

Objective:-

1. To help in the development work all across the world.

2. To help encourages the works that promote children's health and better life in all parts of the world.

  • UNICEF has been working successful in almost all 193 countries of the world.


ILO

  • The international labour organisation ( ILO) founded in October 1919.

  • Its headquarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective:-

  1. to promote efficient conditions of social justice and work for workers international labour stands at the global level.

  2. There is an incentive for women and male workers to engaged and productive work and to create safety at workplace.

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