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Chapter-1 Human Geography Nature and Scope Notes | Class 12th Geography NCERT


Nature of Human Geography

What is Human Geography?

  • Human geography studies how humans interact with the physical environment and how they create their own social and cultural environments.

  • In Class 11, you learned about the physical environment, which includes landforms, soils, climate, water, natural vegetation, and various plants and animals.



Elements Created by Humans:

  • Think about all the things humans have made using resources from the environment: houses, villages, cities, roads, railways, industries, farms, ports, and items we use every day.



Interacting with the Environment

  • Humans use technology to interact with the environment. Technology shows how advanced a society is.

  • Understanding natural laws has been crucial. For example:

  • Knowing about friction and heat helped us discover fire.

  • Understanding DNA and genetics helped us fight diseases.

  • Using aerodynamics, we built faster airplanes.



Early Human Interaction - Environmental Determinism

  • Early humans were heavily influenced by nature because they had very basic technology.

  • They adapted to nature, worshipped it, and lived in harmony with it.

  • This stage is called environmental determinism, where humans followed nature's rules.



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