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UNIT-2 Organs of Government Notes | Studyship BA Hons | Delhi University

Hi students, welcome to #Studyship. Below given notes are for the paper Political theory: Concepts and Debates. As being DU alumina , notes are as per #DU syllabus of BA Hons political science for semester 3. Would love to hear from you all if liked the notes, so let's explore...


A) The Legislature: Power and Functions of Parliament, Debates on Representation in Parliament

Power and Functions of Parliament:

  • Law-Making: Parliament is the supreme legislative body responsible for making laws. It enacts laws by introducing bills, discussing them in both houses (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha), and passing them. Both houses must pass a bill for it to become law.

  • Budgetary Functions: The Parliament approves government budgets, taxation, and expenditure through the presentation, discussion, and passing of the annual budget.

  • Oversight and Accountability: It exercises oversight over the executive by holding it accountable through various means such as parliamentary committees, questions, debates, and motions.

Debates on Representation in Parliament:

  • Proportional Representation: Some debates focus on the need for proportional representation in Parliament, advocating for electoral systems that accurately represent diverse voices and ensure fair representation for minority groups.

  • First-Past-the-Post System: Criticisms of the existing electoral system include potential marginalization of smaller parties and voices due to the winner-takes-all nature of the system.

B) The Executive: Election, Power, Functions, and Changing Role of President and Prime Minister

Election and Power:

  • President: Elected indirectly by an Electoral College comprising elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures. The President's powers are largely ceremonial but include some discretionary powers such as vetoing bills, ordinance-making powers, and the power to dissolve the Lok Sabha under certain circumstances.

  • Prime Minister: The Prime Minister is the head of government and is usually the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister holds significant executive powers and is responsible for formulating policies, overseeing the administration, and making crucial decisions.


  • President: Apart from ceremonial roles, the President plays a key role in the appointment of the Prime Minister, other high-ranking officials, and exercising certain constitutional powers.

  • Prime Minister: The Prime Minister leads the government, sets the policy agenda, coordinates the functioning of various ministries, and represents the country on national and international platforms.

Changing Role:

  • Evolution of Prime Minister's Powers: Over the years, the Prime Minister's powers have grown due to various factors including the development of the principle of collective responsibility, the strengthening of the Prime Minister's Office (PMO), and the increased centralization of power in the hands of the Prime Minister.

C) The Judiciary: Appointment of Judges in High Courts and the Supreme Court, Power, and Functions

Appointment of Judges:

  • High Courts and Supreme Court Judges: Judges are appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and a collegium system comprising a group of senior judges.

  • Criteria: The appointment is based on factors such as seniority, experience, and legal expertise.

Powers and Functions:

  • Judicial Review: The judiciary holds the power of judicial review, ensuring the constitutionality of laws and executive actions. It can strike down laws or actions that violate the Constitution.

  • Interpretation of Laws: Courts interpret laws, resolve disputes, and deliver justice by applying legal principles and protecting constitutional rights.

  • Guardian of the Constitution: The judiciary acts as the guardian of the Constitution, ensuring that laws and actions comply with constitutional provisions and fundamental rights.

Conclusion: The three organs of government in India - the legislature, executive, and judiciary - are critical in the functioning of the Indian democratic system. The Parliament, as the legislative body, plays a pivotal role in law-making, budgetary functions, and oversight. The Executive, represented by the President and Prime Minister, holds significant powers and responsibilities in governance and policy-making. The Judiciary, with its role in interpreting laws, ensuring justice, and upholding the Constitution, acts as a check and balance on the other branches of government. Understanding the detailed functions, powers, and interrelations among these organs is fundamental in ensuring effective governance, protection of rights, and upholding the rule of law in India.


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