1. A GLIMPSE OF SANCHI
In the 19th century, Europeans were very interested in the stupa at Sanchi
French and Englishmen were provided prepared plaster-case copies and the original remained in Bhopal State
Shahjehan Begum and her Successor Sultan Jehan Begum provided money for the preservation of the ancient site
Stupa Complex has survived then due to the Wise decisions of the rulers of Bhopal
2. THE BACKGROUND: SACRIFICES AND DEBATES
The first millennium BCE regarded as a turning point.
(i) Emergence of thinkers such as Zarathustra in Iran, Kong zi in China, Socrates, Plate and Aristotle in Greece and Mahavira and Gautam Buddha from India
(ii) This was the time when Kingdoms and and new cities were developing social and economic life.
2.1 The Sacrificial tradition
Early Vedic traditions known from the Rigveda compiled between c1500 and. 1000 BCE Rigveda consists of hymns in praise of variety deities especially Agni,Indra and Soma.
Sacrifices such as the Ashvamedha and rajasuya were performed by chief who depended on Brahman priests to conduct the ritual.
2.2 New Questions
About the meaning of life
Possibility of life after death and rebirth. Was rebirth due to past actions ?
People also began speculating on significance of the sacrificial tradition.
2.3 Debates and Discussions
Debates took place in the kutagarashala (a hut with a pointed roof or in groves where travelling mendicants halted)
"Teachers, including Mahavira emphasised individual agency suggesting that men and women could strive to attain liberation from the trials and tribulations of worldy existence
This was in marked constrast to the Brahmanical position.
How Buddhist texts were prepared
The Buddha taught Orally None of the speeches were written down during his lifetime After his death (C5-4th century BCE) his teachings were complied by his disciples at a council at Vesali known as Tipitaka